Gender in Victorian Britain – Lecture notes for Nov. 04, 2014

History 364-0-01: Gender and Sexuality in Victorian Britain; Northwestern University, Fall 2014

  • Victorian’s Women’s Movements
    • Umbrella term for a variety of interest and lobbying groups
    • Women were not awarded degrees because those with degrees would have a voice on how the university is run, and they wanted to keep women out of that
    • The term “feminism” comes to use in the mid-1890s
    • The Women’s Movement was extremely effective
    • Before the movements kicked in, women had no legal right in their marriage over their own children – the husband has sole rights
    • Infant Custody Acts (1873, 1886)
      • For the first time, gave mothers certain rights over their children
    • Married Women’s Property Acts (1870, 1882)
      • Prior to this act, women’s husbands seized all possession of their property; she loses control over her own property and money
      • Upon marriage, a woman no longer loses rights to her own property, and for the first time, were allowed to represent themselves in court and be sued
    • Matrimonial Causes Act (1857): divorce gets taken out of the church courts and becomes a civil matter
      • A man can divorce a woman due to adultery, but a woman can only divorce a man due to adultery as well as one aggravating factor (i.e. abuse, negligence, bestiality, sodomy, etc.)
  • Marriage
    • August 1888: Daily Telegraph asked, “is marriage a failure?”
      • The paper received 27,000 letters, ranging from enthusiasm to dissatisfaction
    • Mona Caird (1854-1932)
      • Saw herself as a progressive feminist and thought the women’s movement was too conservative
      • Publishes a journal article in the Westminster Review earlier in the month (before the question was asked) titled “Marriage”
      • She states that marriage, in its present state, is a failure
      • She asks why, in marriage, they are stuck with an antiquated law and women are always on the losing end
      • She thinks about marriage as a form of legalized prostitution – marriage is the only career choice for a women who could not earn admittance into a higher education institution, and the only way out of the parental home
      • During this time, a newspaper often had stories about Jack the Ripper on one half, and a raging debate about marriage on the other half
      • When a woman marries, she gives up all legal rights to her own body
      • Conjugal rights are the rights a man has to engage sexual activity with his wife – sexual intercourse is his right in marriage, and the woman has no right to say no
      • Free union is a lifelong, committed relationship between two equals
    • Clitheroe/Jackson Case
      • Comes to court in the late 1890s
      • A woman named Emily marries a man named Edmond Jackson in 1887
      • Jackson leaves to travel to New Zealand to take care of business interests
      • Shortly after his departure, she writes to him asking him to return
      • By the time he returns, she is living with her sisters and her family, and she refuses to see him
      • He sues his wife for restitution for conjugal rights
      • In 1891, as she’s leaving church, two accomplices set up by her husband bundle her into a carriage and take her to her husband, where he locks her into his bedroom
      • Her sisters countersuit for the return of her body, and this gets taken to a higher court
      • “Where a wife refuses to live with her husband, he is not entitled to keep her in confinement in order to enforce restitution of conjugal rights.”
      • When Emily left court, there was a massive crowd of mostly men booing and jeering at her because of the judgment; mainstream conservative newspapers claimed that this is the end of marriage in this country as we know it
  • Continue reading




K. H. Kim’s 14th Biannual Taekwondo Tournament

Earlier today, I checked in on Google+ letting you guys know that I was at a taekwondo tournament:

Unfortunately, once the actual tournament began, I was walking around the entire time checking on our students and watching their events, and didn’t really get a chance to take many photos. However, I did get a few from before the tournament started.

Our martial arts academy was responsible for doing the demonstration for the opening ceremony; this is the massive pile of bricks to be broken during the ceremony, and the cinder blocks to hold them up.

Of course, right as the students arrive, what else would they do except sit in a row on their phones and laptops? I think he was playing Minecraft on his laptop … lol

These last two photos show three student members of the demo team practicing and preparing for the demonstration.

A lot of parents were there taking photos and videos, so hopefully I can manage to get a hold of some of them.




Screenshot: The aftermath of the first day of Double XP Weekend

After a day of double experience, I managed to go up eight Smithing levels, one Herblore level, and one Mining level.

For Smithing, I started by attempting to smelt Gold Ore, then realized that the experience bonus from the Goldsmithing Gauntlets doesn’t stack with the double experience bonus. So, I changed my plan and decided to use up a bunch of Adamant Bars I had stored in my bank.

Upon hitting level 85, I used 250 Protean Bars I had saved up that I won from Treasure Hunter a while back, then headed over to the Grand Exchange to purchase 20 million coins’ worth of Adamantite Ore and Coal to use in the Artisan’s Workshop.

After finally reaching level 88 in Smithing, I bought a bunch of Dwarven Stouts and took my Corrupted Ore to Priffdinas during Trahaearn’s Voice of Seren buff period. I destroyed about a thousand Corrupted Ore, and ended the day at level 89 Smithing, ready to destroy Corrupted Ore in the future without needing the +1 Smithing level buff of a Dwarven Stout.

For Herblore, I dug through my bank searching for ingredients. After seeing that I had an excess of Dwarf Weed and not much Wine of Zamorak, I spent about 2 million coins purchasing enough ingredients from the Grand Exchange to balance out my ingredient proportions, and made Super Ranging Potions until I leveled up in Herblore once.

At the end of the day, I decided to relax after a day of relatively click-intensive training by mining Seren Stone in Prifddinas.

(Click to enlarge)

Unfortunately, I wasn’t able to catch the fireworks for my level-up because I was in another window browsing Reddit, but that screenshot still shows the standing of my stats relative to where I was yes­ter­day.

My main goal for the entire Double XP Weekend was to get my Smithing level high enough to be able to destroy Corrupted Ore. Seeing as I overestimated how long that would take, and I already reached my goal after the first day (before the official weekend even started), I’ll probably spend the rest of the week­end’s experience boost working on Herblore and Summoning.



Screenshot: When one Portable Forge just isn’t enough…

(Click to enlarge)

Backstory: the original Portable Forge was the left-most one, which is one step away from the bank chest (placed there in a non-optimal position in error by the Portables host). Someone complained about it, so rather than just waiting it out, someone placed another Portable Forge in its proper spot (the middle one).

Then, a troll came along, and in an act of “that’s what you get for complaining,” plopped a third Portable Forge down on the same square as the one used to access the bank chest.

(For those who are unfamiliar, portable skilling stations give bonus experience and other benefits when used, and are considered relatively valuable. Thus, a lot of people were getting upset that these boosts were being put to waste due to there being three down at the same time.)

(Click to enlarge)

In other news, I got myself 2,400 RuneCoins today. I bought five Bank Boosters to increase my bank space by 250 slots, then spent the remaining RuneCoins on a permanent Wealth Evaluator unlock.





Stream VOD: Katarina mid and Ashe support with Grainyrice


Playing some Katarina mid and Ashe support in a duo queue normal League of Legends game with Ed (Grainyrice).

The stream starts part-way into the Katarina game because I forgot to turn on the audio in my stream before that point in the game.

An interesting fun fact about the Katarina game: I was originally going to hit Random and lock in, taking my random champion mid. My randomly selected champion was Miss Fortune, but Ed wanted to play her as an ADC (he was last pick). So, he picked a champion for me, and we traded champions.

He decided to pick Katarina for me because the enemy team was heavy in crowd control and he wanted to screw me over. That clearly didn’t work out for him.